sixteen tu The new REFLEXIVE PREFIX In ZULU - An effective TYPOLOGICAL Direction Sonja Elizabeth. Bosch On this page I am going to take a look at the newest roots of reflexive prefix from inside the Zulu, investing special attention with the procedure of grammaticalization which lexemes turn into grammatical formatives. Because reflexivization in certain Bantu dialects will be compared, this article are typically in the form of a beneficial typological analysis. From inside the Lehmann s () conversation of phenomena which are known as reflexive, it’s interesting to note which he assumes four categories of reflexives, specifically 0) autophoric nouns which happen to be average nouns like human body, breath, heart, direct that ple, within the Sanscrit the fresh new noun dtman meaning breathing, spirit, along with Basque, the noun burua meaning direct, are accustomed to share the same as English mind. Autophoric nouns put as the reflexives are usually with a great possessive pronoun, as in next analogy out-of Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani strength:acc put:region putting power in the himself (ii) reflexive nouns which can be nouns stating this is worry about and absolutely nothing otherwise, including the German selbst me personally and Finnish itse since represented on the adopting the instances: 344
17 German (2) Ich komme selbst I am future myself Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-lorsque? want-dos.sg-int violation-acc.pl worry about-all-poss.dos.sg Would you like the latest tickets for your self? When you look at the dialects such as for instance Finnish, Hungarian and you will Turkish reflexive nouns just take possessive affixes, while in other dialects for example German and/or Relationship languages, these types of nouns are not usually alongside possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns which have the primary purpose of referring back once again to the topic, including the Italian language sich in the: German (4) Sie waschen sich He or she is laundry by themselves (iv) spoken reflexives that are verb affixes indicating your action somehow affects the subject, such as the second examples: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-discover he saw himself Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di child tidy-refl-at night kid sparkling themselves Lehmann () stresses that the borders within categories is liquid and you can claims these four categories of reflexive facets are now towards a measure of expanding grammaticalization.
This means, one can pick so it due to the fact an effective continuum out-of alter that may become depicted the following: 345
18 Lexical item Grammatical recenzja minder * morpheme Lehmann (ff) will bring instances in almost any languages so you're able to instruct the changes which have happened otherwise are still going on from a single class so you're able to next. The entire process of transform are confirmed because of the Faltz () which, regarding his morphological difference between a couple of chief type of reflexives, particularly NP-reflexives which may feature an affordable morpheme acting as direct of your own reflexive noun phrase, and you can spoken reflexives, composed of reflexive pronouns which happen to be cliticized onto the verb, remarks: Dialects may go from one to pole to the other, in reality, particularly movement was always in the NP-reflexive pole towards verbal reflexive pole. Into the Zulu reflexiveness is actually understood in the shape of an excellent prefix which individually precedes the new verb stalk. The latest reflexive prefix are invariable in shape, and thus it is a good morphological shape and therefore remains constant no matter the category that their antecedent belongs. This is exactly obviously portrayed on pursuing the instances within the Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya the new-man the guy-himself strike the boy hit himself (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini the fresh new-lady she-herself-see in-echo The lady sees by herself regarding mirror During these advice -zi- is the reflexive morpheme and procedures regarding strike to discover was directed back upon the particular grammatical sufferers, which is, son and you will lady. It is interesting one when you look at the generative education, a serious perception is created into underlying build out of sentences with reflexives, specifically NP1 - V - NP1. On top, such as for instance a construction are ungrammatical on Bantu languages if your a few NPs was co-referential and you will identical fit, elizabeth.grams. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho cheated Sipho Into the Zulu including a phrase is generated grammatical of the installation of a good reflexive prefix regarding verb and you will the newest removal of co-referential noun. age.g. 346